Parenthood Gender Employment Social norms

Despite a strong convergence in employment rate between men and women, being a mother is still associated with a penalty on the labour market. Motherhood reduces the probability of being employed (mainly for low-educated women) and raises the use of part-time (in particular for highly educated women). Chances to get a managerial position or a job with supervisory responsibilities are therefore narrowed. Conversely, fatherhood is neutral or even an advantage for men’s career. Policies aiming to facilitate work-life balance generate adverse effects on women’s career. While both men and women are eligible, the use of these schemes remained mothers’ choice. Current gender norms lead to the persistence of traditional male and female roles and therefore hinder social progress. An equally shared parental leave could contribute to a fairer picture, just as more affordable and available childcare. Raising young women's awareness about the consequences of their educational and career choices would also certainly help to increase women emancipation.


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